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分类目录: 考试点拨
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SAT,托福,雅思等考试的经验,资料,指导等等

考试点拨SAT essay全方位攻略

首先,你需要明确以下事项:
1.作文总是出现在SAT考试的第一部分,好的作文发挥可以给你后面的考试带来信心,但请注意“可持续发展”,后面还有九个部分需要大量用脑呢。
2.包括读题、写作、润色在内你共有25分钟时间完成这一部分。
3.作文要求你为你自己的观点辩论,所以使用第一人称和发生在自己身上的例子是完全可以的。
4.你的作文得写在线上,且最多只能写两面,超出不给纸。
5.你的作文由两位考官给分,每人给1-6分,总分在2-12之间,考官受专业评分训练,你不用担心考官错评
6.不能离题,离题0分。
7.每个考官花两分钟以内的时间批改你的作文,你可以自己去尝试一下两分钟内阅读一篇字迹陌生潦草的文章是什么样的时间概念,然后就会意识到考官一定在有意识地在你的文章中寻找一些要素和章法,不用担心,我接下来会教给你这些要素,让你取得高分。
8.作文分数大约占writing部分的三分之一,然而如果你的语法全对,哪怕作文拿8分你也能得到760以上的高分;如果你作文得到满分,4个以内的语法错误也能让你得到760以上的高分。


作文结构
无论你的作文题目是什么,考官总是要求你有一个固定的文章结构,也就是一开头一结尾三论述段的五段式作文了,如果你觉得五段对你来说是不可能的任务,那你也可以选择四段式,只是要更系统更周密地论述你的中间两段,而且得到满分的几率跟五段式相比也可能低一点。

题目提示
每个SAT作文题目都会给你一个要么是引言要么是一小段的提示,用于激发你的思考,注意,你可以无视prompt而直接回答assignment的问题,prompt只是用于激发思考而已,而我认为看到assignment的时候你就应该有自己的思考了。我们用接下来这个题目作为本文中讲解的范例:
Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and assignment below:

A sense of happiness and fulfillment, not personal gain, is the best motivation and reward for one's achievements. Expecting a reward of wealth or recognition for achieving a goal can lead to disappointment and frustration. If we want to be happy in what we do in life, we should not seek achievement for the sake of winning wealth and fame. The personal satisfaction of a job well done is its own reward.

Assignment:
Are people motivated to achieve by personal satisfaction rather than by money or fame? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.

题目分析:
这个题目像所有的SAT作文题一样都有一定的复杂性,在真实世界里,人们会被很多因素所激励,如personal satisfaction, financial gain, status。如果让你在学校写一篇文章回答这个问题你可以正面反面讨论这个问题的方方面面,然而25分钟和500字的字数限制让你不可能这么做。怎么办?你该做的是找最强有力的论据支持正方或反方中一方的观点,而非正方说一点反方说一点模棱两可,也就是说在SAT作文中,你必须在开头段中就明确地提出你支持的观点,并在接下来的几段中强有力地证明你的观点。

第一步:非选即败
刚刚说了你需要明确自己站在哪一方的阵营,注意:你不需要自己真心支持这一方观点,只要是你觉得支持这一方容易找论点和论据就可以这样选。
亮明立场不是说一句"I believe people are motivated by personal fulfillment," 或者 "I think people are motivated by wealth and fame." 这样简单的,你需要快速地展示你的写作水平和思考深度,因此你需要进一步缩小论点或者稍稍提及另外的因素。

明了扣题
SAT题目一般来说讲的是所有人在所有情况下该做的事,你完全可以对人物和情况加以限定让你的论述更精确。比如说如果你想写people are motivated by wealth and recognition rather than personal fulfillment,你可以详细解释什么人受这些因素鼓舞,什么情况导致人们受这些因素鼓舞。你也可以认为people are only motivated by money and fame in their professional lives but not in their personal lives,或者 once people achieve a taste of wealth or fame their motivations change.

问题的另一面
SAT作文的题面总是非常宽泛的,因此在文章中或者结束前提到问题的另一面能显示你多角度思维的能力和视角,是一个帮你加分的好主意,但切记要有新意要衔接自然。

勾住考官
毋庸置疑每个考官一次性需要给上百篇作文评分,而大部分的文章都有类似的观点,甚至给出的例子也是相同的,这个时候让你的文章脱颖而出你必须设法让你的文章变得有趣,在一开头就引人入胜。这样的一句话叫“hook”,Hook不是必要的,而且千万不要花过多时间为文章想一个hook,不切题的hook是会给考官不好的印象的,不过如果你想到合适幽默的名人名言、事实或是轶闻,请别犹豫把它写出来。

开头段
因此开头段需要完成以下任务:
1. "Hook" the reader (optional)
2. "Narrow" the prompt
3. Choose a side

下面是一篇范文的开头段,题目就是本文开始放出来的那个。

"Money makes the world go round."(HOOK) Sadly, this famous quotation frequently rings all-too-true. Though many people, in their personal lives, seem driven by benevolent qualities such as personal satisfaction, altruism, and even love, (ACKNOWLEDGE THE OTHER SIDE) these same individuals often allow greed and recognition to dominate their professional existence. (NARROW THE PROMPT AND CHOOSE A SIDE)

第二步:举一个事例
确定观点后你需要寻找论据,你当然可以用发生在平时生活中的例子,但是一般来说文学、历史、时事、科学类的例子更容易给你高分。在给例子的时候要力求精练,但请明确事件发生的时间地点历时,这让你的论述更让人信服。

每篇作文至少要有两个例子,最多三个例子,大致上每一段就是就一个例子展开的论述,明了起见,你可以在开头段的结尾罗列你所使用的例子及其作用,如下所示,当然也无需分段写得那么详细,毕竟重心要放在中间三段的论述。

"Money makes the world go round."(HOOK) Sadly, this famous quotation frequently rings all-too-true. Though many people, in their personal lives, seem driven by benevolent qualities such as personal satisfaction, altruism, and even love, (ACKNOWLEDGE THE OTHER SIDE) these same individuals often allow greed and recognition to dominate their professional existence. (NARROW THE PROMPT AND CHOOSE A SIDE)

Current events, as well as history and literature, are full of individuals whose primary desires are personal gain. Ken Lay, the former Chief Executive Officer of Enron, is one person who exemplifies this desire for material gain. (EXAMPLE ONE) Christopher Columbus is a second example of a person motivated by a maniacal need for riches and recognition. (EXAMPLE TWO) Finally, a fictional example of a person driven by a craving for wealth is the doctor in John Steinbeck's novel, The Pearl. (EXAMPLE THREE OPTIONAL)


第三步:写好中间段
你的每个body paragraph都应该遵照一致的格式。首先每个中间段都应该有总起句亮明这段的论点和这个论点同全文观点的联系,其次每个中间段都应在四句到六句之间,再次中间段剩下的笔墨应着重用于阐述你的例子,证明论点。

下面让我们比较一下写Ken Lay的中间段的两种不同写法孰优孰劣。

EXAMPLE 1:
Ken Lay, the former Chief Executive Officer of Enron, is one individual who was definitely driven by his desire for wealth. (TOPIC SENTENCE) At Enron, he did many bad things and hurt the lives of many workers. People like Ken Lay should not take advantage of other people simply because they can. It would be better if people were honest. Then, all people could be treated fairly and nobody would be taken advantage of.

EXAMPLE 2:
Ken Lay, the former Chief Executive Officer of Enron, is one individual who was definitely driven by his desire for wealth. (TOPIC SENTENCE) In order to boost the Enron stock price and, in turn, make millions of dollars for himself, Lay allegedly lied about the company's profits and concealed its debts. Once these fraudulent activities were made public, Enron's stock became virtually worthless and the company had to file for bankruptcy protection. Unfortunately, Enron employees were the chief casualty of the scandal. As a result of Ken Lay's greed, most Enron employees lost their jobs, while others lost almost all of their savings.

上面两段哪个写得更好?明显是后者,因为它在论述时使用了细致生动的写法,让论述更详实。

细节啊细节
在你读上面的后一段的时候,你可能在想:我不知道那么多细节消息怎么办?恭喜你,现在就是你应该开始准备论据素材记细节资料的时候了,由于SAT作文题很宽,所以背了一个事件的来龙去脉可能稍稍调整一下就可以运用于阐述不同的论点。
有的人冒险只背两三个例子,试图硬塞给每个题目,我非常不提倡这样的冒险行为,我认为你应该好好准备至少10个例子,其中有一定数量的文学作品(比如课堂上学过的哈克贝利费恩历险记)、有多方面了解的政治人物或慈善人物(这两类好套用各种题目)、战争冲突或者事件(如Dunkirk撤退、如亚洲金融风暴)、一点跟环保有关的知识。你需要熟谙这些例子的细节并能熟练地使用它们,备考时多写几篇作文是最好的操练。

第四步:总结段
你的总结段最好自成一段,在这段中你至少要完成以下两个任务:
1.再次申明你的观点,将你举的例子联系到大观点以证明的圆满完成了论述任务;
2.最后一句补充的、对未来憧憬的、表达美好理想的、或者精辟的引言概述全文意思。

The drive for wealth and recognition is a significant component of human nature. (STATEMENT OF SUMMATION) As the examples of Ken Lay, Christopher Columbus, and the doctor from The Pearl demonstrate, financial gain as a motivator often trumps personal satisfaction. (TIE STATEMENT TO EXAMPLES) We can only hope that, as people continue to evolve, love, happiness, and a sense of personal fulfillment will replace individual riches as humanity's ultimate goal. (KICKER)


把这些要素调和起来,一篇SAT作文应运而生。

"Money makes the world go round."(HOOK) Sadly, this famous quotation frequently rings all-too-true. Though many people, in their personal lives, seem driven by benevolent qualities such as personal satisfaction, altruism, and even love, (ACKNOWLEDGE THE OTHER SIDE) these same individuals often allow greed and recognition to dominate their professional existence. (NARROW THE PROMPT AND CHOOSE A SIDE)

Current events, as well as history and literature, are full of individuals whose primary desires are personal gain. Ken Lay, the former Chief Executive Officer of Enron, is one person who exemplifies this desire for material gain. (EXAMPLE ONE) Christopher Columbus is a second example of a person motivated by a maniacal need for riches and recognition. (EXAMPLE TWO) Finally, a fictional example of a person driven by a craving for wealth is the doctor in John Steinbeck's novel, The Pearl. (EXAMPLE THREE ý OPTIONAL)

Ken Lay, the former Chief Executive Officer of Enron, is one individual who was definitely driven by his desire for wealth. (EXAMPLE ONE TOPIC SENTENCE) In order to boost the Enron stock price and, in turn, make millions of dollars for himself, Lay allegedly lied about the company's profits and concealed its debts. Once these fraudulent activities were made public, Enron's stock became virtually worthless and the company had to file for bankruptcy protection. Unfortunately, Enron employees were the chief casualty of the scandal. As a result of Ken Lay's greed, most Enron employees lost their jobs, while others lost almost all of their savings. (DETAILS TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 1)

Christopher Columbus is a second person whose unyielding craving for riches and recognition dominated his life. (EXAMPLE TWO TOPIC SENTENCE) In 1492, after adopting the title "admiral of the ocean seas," Columbus set sail for China and India in search of silver and gold. Upon his arrival in the "New World", Columbus treated the native populations not as humans to be respected but as slaves to further his wealth and power. In his defense, Columbus was acting similarly to many other explorers of his time. However, this does not alter the fact that he was a man for whom wealth and power were paramount. (DETAILS TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 2)

The doctor in John Steinbeck's novel The Pearl is a final example of a person driven by monetary gain. (EXAMPLE THREE TOPIC SENTENCE) In The Pearl, a small child named Coyotito is bitten by a scorpion. However, the doctor refuses to treat Coyotito because Kino, Coyotito's father, has no money. Later, however, after Kino finds a beautiful pearl, the doctor is more than happy to treat Coyotito, thinking that Kino will pay for the medical services with the pearl. (DETAILS TO SUPPORT EXAMPLE 3)

The drive for wealth and recognition is a significant component of human nature. (STATEMENT OF SUMMATION) As the examples of Ken Lay, Christopher Columbus, and the doctor from The Pearl demonstrate, financial gain as a motivator often trumps personal satisfaction. (TIE STATEMENT TO EXAMPLES) We can only hope that, as people continue to evolve, love, happiness, and a sense of personal fulfillment will replace individual riches as humanity's ultimate goal. (KICKER)


模板
上文所使用的结构是你写SAT作文时要运用的结构,无论题目是什么

Introduction
1. Hook (Optional)
2. Thesis Statement - Choose a Side
3. Mention the examples that will support Thesis

Body Paragraph One
1. Example One Topic Sentence
2. Details to support Example One

Body Paragraph Two
1. Example Two Topic Sentence
2. Details to support Example Two

Body Paragraph Three (Optional)
1. Example Three Topic Sentence
2. Details to support Example Three

Conclusion
1. Statement of Summation (Restate Thesis)
2. Tie Statement of Summation to Examples
3. Broaden Thesis with a Kicker

此外,你需要注意以下几点:

文章长度
一名MIT教授曾指出SAT作文的得分与文章长度是存在正比关系的,虽然SAT考试机构反驳说注重质量而非数量,但确实无数事例表明文章长度和得分存在着关系,因此请尽量写满你的两面纸,实在填不满也要写满一张又四分之三张,试想你是考官,在一两分钟以内也就是无法通篇读完的情况下给分数印象分是否无疑变得重要,没有填满的作文纸给考官的印象就是理屈词穷、论证不细致不完整。另外请不要为了凑齐五段在第二个中间段的后面加一个只有三四行的中间段,这样不完整详细的论述会给文章扣分,不如将心思花在丰满剩下的中间段和总结段上面。从字数来说你要力争每篇文章字数在400以上,中间段厚实、首尾稍轻巧是有条理结构好的文章的标志之一。

词汇
这个问题大家应该是知道该怎么做了,复杂的词汇一定要是你确保在这个场合使用它比用其它词合适的情况下才会给你加分,如果你不确定它的意思还是用更简洁明了的代替吧。

句式
要有意识地在文章中多使用不同句式,使用简单句和复合句,巧用分号,注意连接词和逗号的用法。并且在合适的地方勤用表过渡或转折的词汇,同向的词包括therefore, hence, because, consequently, moreover, 和furthermore; 表转折的词汇包括although, conversely, in contrast, however, 以及nevertheless.

语法及拼写错误
由于SAT作文只有25分钟的完成时间,考官会把你的作文当作一个草稿来读,不会过分苛求语法和拼写零错误率,所以偶尔的语法拼写错误不会影响你的分数,不过如果你有反复的语法或拼写错误,这就可能对你有比较大的不利影响了,因此还是一定要写完后检查一遍。

字迹
请使用印刷手写体而非草书,尽量保持字迹容易识别,保持卷面的整洁。

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